3D Print Problems (w/Photos & Solutions)

Here is a thread to showcase 3D print issues and their solutions (does not include software/firmware issues unless they directly affected a printed object). Note: some symptoms can have several different underlying problems with different solutions for each, so use this as a guide of what possibilities to look into on your prints.
For those posting your experiences, please include a photo(s) of the problem, a description of both the problem and its solution for the specific case you are posting, and any other details relevant to such.

1) Symptom: Inconsistent initial layer lines
Problem: Nozzle plowing/too low
Solution: Raise z-offset and/or recalibrate bed level

2) Symptom: Line & layer adhesion failure/separation during printing
Problem: Under-extrusion from excessive tension on filament
Solution: Find source of tension and relieve

3) Symptom: Repeating pattern on exterior surface
Problem: Infill showing through walls
Solution: Adjust slicer settings (walls before infill, wall printing order, outer wall before inner wall, etc.)

4) Symptom: specific spot initial layer adhesion failure
Problem: Dirty build plate
Solution: Clean build plate

5) Symptom: Filament dribble during travel moves and lines after travel moves not connecting
Problem: Nozzle oozing during travel moves
Solution: Adjust slicer setting Combing mode from “All” to “Within Infill”

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This one is a little more complicated…
Symptom: Random x-axis layer shifting back and forth
Problem: Extruder assembly in print head shifting back and forth from filament tension and jerking movements
Details: On the back of the print head, screw #2 was accidentally installed using a screw that was too long. It caused screw #1 to strip out, allowing the extruder assembly inside the head to shift back and forth, offsetting the nozzle each time
Solution: Fix or replace print head, and in the future ensure machine assembled with correct hardware