Well there are a ton of options, but every woodworker has a few that they go to.
If you are looking simply to bring out the laser and preserve the wood a poly may be all you need. Wipe on poly is great because it is so simple, just wipe on and dry, but it is oil based so make sure you have the proper supplies for cleanup. It should also be noted that with age an oil based poly will slightly yellow, so your piece will gradually yellow with time if it is a light wood like birch. Water based poly on the other hand behaves the same, it can be cleaned up with soap and water, and it also tends not to yellow.
For things like cutting boards I really like mineral oil and bees wax, there are lot’s of store bought products or you can make your own.
If you need a good hard finish Shellac is really nice as well, and durable. I have not played with this finish as much but have it all ready to go when I get some more wood projects finished.
All of the finishes I listed are discussed in this video:
There are so many options, it really depends on what you want in the end. I am a fan of more natural finishes and wood colors, but there are also some really cool stains out there too. Make sure you look at things like application, dry times, durability, and safety when considering your choices.
I’m sure there is a lot more wisdom on here, so if you find some finishes that you want info on I hope you post again. This could be a really great ongoing discussion.